An introduction to the analysis of the reproductive system

This part of the urethra has on its floor or posterior wall a longitudinal ridge called the urethral crest. Overview of Mating Systems Mating systems are often considered in terms of the amount of inbreeding that occurs in populations of sexual organisms.

Introduction to the Male Reproductive System - Learning Outcomes

The inner part, attached to the bony margins of the pubic arch that part of the pelvis directly in front and at the base of the trunkis called the root of the penis. Reproductive problems are seldom accompanied by alarming signs of disease.

The urethra traverses its substance. The observed frequencies of homozygotes and heterozygotes for any locus matches the predicted frequencies under the assumption that gametes unite randomly to form zygotes. The sexual response in both males and females can be defined by three physiological events.

The longitudinal muscle fibres are well developed, and peristaltic contractions contractions in waves move the sperm toward the ampulla.

But if the level of gene diversity in the population is low, e. Beneath the dartos muscle are layers of fascia continuous with those forming the coverings of each of the two spermatic cords, which suspend the testes within the scrotum and contain each ductus deferens, the testicular blood and lymph vessels, the artery to the cremaster muscle which draws the testes upwardthe artery to each ductus deferens, the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve, and the testicular network of nerves.

Prostate cancer is almost exclusively confined to the outer zone. The organ is composed chiefly of cavernous or erectile tissue that becomes engorged with blood to produce considerable enlargement and erection.

The breasts develop, and there is a deposition of body fat in accordance with the usual contours of the mature female. Growth of axillary armpit and pubic hair is more abundant, and the hair becomes thicker. When the spermatozoon is fully mature, it is propelled by the lashing movements of the tail.

The result of genetic assortative mating is a population structure characterized by an excess of homozygotes compared to the predictions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and a relatively low level of genotypic diversity.

An extreme example of genetic disassortative mating is shown by plants and fungi that are obligate outcrossers as a result of a mating incompatibility system. Hair at the temples recedes. The hair in the armpits and the pubic hair becomes abundant and thicker.

For optimal results, ovulation and deposition of semen into the female genital tract must be closely synchronized. The tubules, if straightened, would extend about 70 cm about 28 inches.

Human reproductive system

The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are the primary regulatory centers; thus, the regulatory function is, in part, neuroendocrine in nature. The ampulla is thinner-walled and probably acts as a sperm store.

Major infertility problems in males are caused by disturbances of the production, transport, or storage of spermatozoa; aberration of libido; and partial or complete inability to mate.

Maturation of the sperm in the female tract is called capacitation.

An introduction to the analysis of the reproductive system

The hormone may also be necessary to cause maturation of sperm and to heighten the sex drive of the male. The seminal vesicles have longitudinal and circular layers of smooth muscle, and their cavities are lined with mucous membrane, which is the source of the secretions of the organs.

Pathogens that are inbreeding or that undergo asexual reproduction tend to keep together old combinations of genes, leading to lower genotypic diversity in populations. These cells are located in the connective interstitial tissue that holds the tubules together within each lobule.

The larynxor voice box, enlarges, with resultant deepening of the voice. Organisms with assortative mating systems tend to mate with individuals that share alleles, like close relatives.

The lymph vessels, which also pass through the spermatic cord, drain to the lateral and preaortic lymph nodes. The glands, which measure only about 1 cm 0. The crura and the bulb are attached respectively to the edges of the pubic arch and to the perineal membrane the fibrous membrane that forms a floor of the trunk.

At its lower end the tube is constricted to form a straight duct or tube that joins with the corresponding ductus deferens to form the ejaculatory duct. The differences between a male and a female are genetically determined by the chromosomes that each possesses in the nuclei of the cells.

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For example, many smut fungi may be forced to undergo brother-sister mating because a dikaryon must form for successful infection, and the most likely encounter between strains of opposite mating type in the soil will be basidiospores that emerge from the same probasidium.

Human reproductive system, organ system by which humans reproduce and bear live offspring. Provided all organs are present, normally constructed, and functioning properly, the essential features of human reproduction are (1) liberation of an ovum, or egg, at a specific time in the reproductive cycle, (2) internal fertilization of the ovum by spermatozoa, or sperm cells, (3) transport of the.

Introduction to the Male Reproductive System - Learning Outcomes Introduction to the Male Reproductive System - Summary; Previous Topic Next Topic. Previous Topic Previous slide Next slide Next Topic. Introduction to the Introduction to the Male Repro Introduction to the Male Reproductive System - Learning Outcomes.

Topic Study. Association for Reproductive and Family Health (): Landscaping analysis of Reproductive health and Family Planning policies in Nigeria: a review for inclusion of female condoms.

Unlike the female reproductive system, most of the male reproductive system is located outside of the body. These external structures include the penis, scrotum, and testicles. The body of the. Life itself would not be what it is without two very important key things: the male reproductive system and the female reproductive system.

Both of these systems correlate with each other, however there are some major differences between the two that separate themselves into different categ. Genotype diversity is affected by the mating system (inbreeding organisms have lower genotype diversity than outcrossing), reproduction system (sexual organisms have higher diversity than asexual organisms), and selection.

If one or two clones increase in frequency compared to other clones in a field population as a result of selection, the overall genotypic diversity of the selected population will decrease.

An introduction to the analysis of the reproductive system
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Infertility - Reproductive System - Veterinary Manual